Beaver county times obituary
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2010.10.07 18:01 ddesigns Beaver County News and Events
A place for residents of Beaver County to post news and events pertaining to Beaver County, PA.
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Community curated front page of Pittsburgh's place on the internet. Share news, events, and thoughts with/about the Pittsburgh community.
2017.10.06 06:21 chrismetalrock EagleCO
2023.06.03 23:52 TheEconomicon Cannot copy Census csv file to data table on Linux
Hi there! A week ago I began my SQL journey with DeBarros's Practical SQL
. I'm currently on Chapter 5 where I'm being asked to import a census dataset to a table in postgre (I'm using PGadmin).
I had no trouble creating the table. Unfortunately, every time I enter the code to import the data itself, I get returned an error message.
This is the code that I enter:
COPY us_counties_pop_est_2019 FROM 'C:/home/**MyDirectory**/Downloads/practical-sql-2-main/us_counties_pop_est_2019.csv' WITH (FORMAT CSV, HEADER);
And this is the error message I get back:
ERROR: could not open file "C:/home/julianassele/Downloads/practical-sql-2-main/us_counties_pop_est_2019.csv" for reading: No such file or directory HINT: COPY FROM instructs the PostgreSQL server process to read a file. You may want a client-side facility such as psql's \copy.
Any ideas as to what I'm doing wrong? I'm currently running POP!_OS on Linux. I'd be happy to answer any and all questions you may have. Thanks!
submitted by TheEconomicon
to SQL [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 23:04 Skullcrusher4OneOne New rule to Ruins
| || |
Has anyone noticed this? Ruins have a new ability "Plunging Fire" if you are 6"+ high shooting at a ground level unit you get +1 AP to your shooting weapons. submitted by Skullcrusher4OneOne to IronWarriors [link] [comments]
Okay may not be a big deal but hear me out. You have Havoc Autocannons that are Heavy 2 BS3+(2+ if they didn't move)with dark Pacts for Sustained Hits (6s to hit create additional hits) that are S9, now AP-2, Damage 3. If only we had a unit that could bring 4 of these guys.... Oh wait we do. Now what if we had 4 Lascannons that are AP-4...
2023.06.03 23:03 yunepio Analysis of all religions (3/3)
Posts in the series
In the previous post, we continued our analysis with a second round of eliminations of more religions that cannot reasonably be from a judging and fair God. At this point, only the Abrahamic religions remain to be analyzed, which we will do below.
The reason I wanted to analyze the Abrahamic religions together last is because they have many similarities. For one, they reference the same God and agree on many details: similar people, similar places, similar events and for the most part, even originated in the same region. In addition, two of them are the biggest religions in the world today, far ahead of all other religions in terms of adoption, nearly accounting for half of the people on the planet! The fact that they are spread out in time and that they reference each other, can at least in theory, represent a pattern of recurring communication. It's also possible that they're just copying from each others. Let's see!
The timeline of appearance of the Abrahamic religions from old to new is as follows: Judaism
- Year of inception: 3500 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: Middle East (Modern day Palestine)
- Messenger: Moses
- Referenced prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham...
- Year of inception: 2000 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: Middle East (Modern day Palestine)
- Messenger: Jesus
- Referenced prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses & other prophets.
- Year of inception: 1400 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: Middle East (Modern day Saudi Arabia)
- Messenger: Muhammad
- Referenced prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus & other prophets.
- Year of inception: 1000 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: Middle East (Egypt)
- Messenger: Hamza Ibn Ali Ibn Ahmad
- Referenced prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad & other prophets.
- Year of inception: 200 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: New York, United States of America
- Messenger: Joseph Smith
- Referenced prophets: Moses & Jesus. Does NOT reference Muhammad (Islam) nor Hamza (Druze)
- Year of inception: 200 years ago, approximately
- Location of inception: Middle East (Modern day Iran)
- Messenger: Baháʼu'lláh
- Referenced prophets: Jesus, Muhammad, Buddha...
Can the Abrahamic religions be instances of communication from their common God? It’s possible, however some issues surface:
- Issue 1: The Druze faith stands out with its secretive nature as it is intentionally restricted. This not only opposes the intention of communication, but also contrasts with the other Abrahamic religions that are all open.
- Issue 2: Mormonism and Baha’i Faith both start nearly 200 years ago in different places while not being compatible with each other. They cannot be both instances of communication. One of them isn’t, or both aren’t.
- Issue 3: Mormonism doesn’t accept Islam nor Druze, while Baha’i Faith accepts all major religions, even Buddhism, which is incompatible with Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Let’s keep the issues above in mind and apply the same criteria to the Abrahamic religions in the same way we did to all of the others. We will analyze them in the chronological order of their appearance.
Let's analyze the message of Judaism.
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): PASS
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): PASS. Judaism warns of judgment day and explains the conditions for success and failure. This makes it unsafe to dismiss! It's the first religion to pass this criteria.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): FAIL. While anyone can technically convert to Judaism, it seems like it was specifically destined for Hebrew people, who later became the Israelites. Many prophets after Moses were specific to the Israelites it seems. The beliefs themselves are universal, in that they don’t have anything in particular that caters to a specific group. Still, it seems restricted to the ethnic Jewish group.
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): PASS. Judaism references previous prophets of monotheism who were supposedly sent by the same God. Prophets like Noah and Abraham. This means that before Judaism came along, there were previous instances of communication, which is necessary for a judging and fair God.
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): PASS. The idea that a God created everything and is testing humanity here on Earth is plausible and does align with the reality we are living. Almost all humans share a common life track: birth, weakness with need of care, strength and autonomy, weakness with need of care again, then death. Moreover, all humans have a certain level of free will. While no absolute free will of action exists, the free will to think and accept or reject ideas is guaranteed. This makes the judgment of such free will possible.
Now let's analyze Moses, the founder of Judaism.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): PASS. He was a leader to his people, the Hebrews. He saved them from the oppression they were living in under the Egyptians (1). He was known for his sense of justice and courage (2). Many of his stories are told in the Bible as well as in the Qur’an.
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): PASS. Moses is the first to pass this criterion. Every single founder of religion who was mentioned previously, was publicly involved with either an existing religion that served as a launch pad or had a profession or interest that prepared the terrain for their claim. Moses was raised by the Egyptians, but never adopted their religion, nor was he involved in any other religion that he publicly taught or engaged in. He also wasn’t known to have any profession where he produced thought or knowledge.
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): PASS. Moses killed an Egyptian who was mistreating one of his people. According to Britannica, Moses voluntarily killed the Egyptian after making sure that no one was looking (3). However, according to the Qur’an, Moses killed the Egyptian by accident after hitting him, and was instantly regretful asking God for forgiveness (4). Regardless of which version of the story is true, Moses fled because he feared for his life. Now here’s the sudden life direction change, he came back after a while by his own volition claiming to be sent by some God who was unknown to the Egyptians, then confronted the Pharaoh himself!!! No sane man would do such a thing! And not just that, he survived everything and won in the end!!!
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. Moses came back to a place where he feared for his life, put forward the exceptional claim that he was sent by a God he wasn't involved with when he left, confronted the ruler, and succeeded against incredible odds!
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): PASS. The message of Moses had and still has a big influence on this very day! There probably aren’t many people in the world today who don’t know who Moses is, regardless of their beliefs. He is one of the most important prophets in many major religions. His legacy is still a part of the Bible as the Old Testament.
If there is a judging and fair God, Moses is highly likely to be one of his messengers. He passes all the criteria while explicitly making the claim of being sent by a God. If he was a fraud, he would have had an existing history of it, and he wouldn’t have dared to come back to a place where he killed someone and feared for his life, then challenge its ruler and win! If he was a deluded self-appointed leader to his people, that delusion would have been his demise. He would have been killed, as other religious founders have. Instead, he and his people, although an oppressed minority without any military power, were able to escape their oppressors and defeat them! This is impossible without some powerful external assistance.
One can reasonably claim that the story of Moses is just a myth that is made to look impressive. That would be fair, except it had more impact than what a myth can fathom. That being said, even if we accept that it’s all a myth, or at least a heavily augmented truth, it is still told by other Abrahamic prophets who happen to have had similar or more impact than Moses did. This makes his story as valid as theirs can be. So, let’s continue our analysis. Sources:
(1) From Britannica
: Moses... Hebrew prophet, teacher, and leader who, in the 13th century bce... delivered his people from Egyptian slavery...
(2) From Britannica
: ...When he found an Egyptian taskmaster beating a Hebrew, probably to death, he could control his sense of justice no longer...
(3) From Britannica
: ...After checking to make sure that no one was in sight, he killed the tough Egyptian overlord...
(4) From the Qur’an
(translation): ˹One day˺ he entered the city unnoticed by its people. There he found two men fighting: one of his own people, and the other of his enemies. The man from his people called to him for help against his foe. So Moses punched him, causing his death. Moses cried, “This is from Satan’s handiwork. He is certainly a sworn, misleading enemy.” He pleaded, “My Lord! I have definitely wronged my soul, so forgive me.” So He forgave him, ˹for˺ He is indeed the All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Let's analyze the message of Christianity.
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): PASS
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): PASS. It does warn of an upcoming judgment and details the conditions of success and failure. This makes it unsafe to dismiss.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): PASS. It is definitely universal. Anyone can be a Christian, and it’s easy to find Christians from different countries, different ethnicities speaking different languages. It doesn’t get as universal as this!
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): PASS. It references previous religions and prophets, like Noah, Abraham, Moses, and many others. All of them being sent by the same God.
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): FAIL. Some concepts in Christianity don’t align with reality well. Christians view Jesus as the son of God, but also as a part of God. God being three different entities, but still one: God the father, the holy spirit and the son. A concept called the trinity. Christians believe that God sacrificed his son in order to absolve humans from their sins. This doesn’t quite make sense for many reasons:
1: If God sacrificed his son in order to absolve us of our sins, judgment wouldn’t make sense. Also, why does a God have a son? Mortals have children to continue the species and to provide for them when they grow weak. A God doesn’t need a son...
- If God sacrificed his son, also a part of himself, it should have been the final act of life here on Earth. Instead, he let Muhammad come after and be so successful in reversing this idea, all while claiming to be sent by him!!! And what about the people who died a long time ago and never knew about this important sacrifice?
- The idea that God is all-powerful, all-knowing and all-loving doesn’t stand for a judging God. It simply isn’t possible for him to have these 3 attributes at the same time. If he is all-knowing, then he knows that many humans will fail his judgment and be severely punished. Consequently, if he is also all-powerful, being all-loving would have him not resort to judgment and not punish anyone. Since he insists on judgment with a heaven and hell, then he isn’t all-loving. Muhammad also happens to correct this idea.
- The conditions of success and failure in the upcoming judgment are not particularly fair. It’s not about what actions one does during their life, rather, it’s about accepting Jesus as savior. One can be the most ruthless killer, then just accept Jesus as savior in order to be absolved of all wrongdoing. Also, what about all the people who lived and died before Jesus was even born? They didn’t know Jesus; how can they accept him as savior? Haven’t they spent their lives following other rules? Isn’t that unfair to them?
Now let's analyze Jesus, the founder of Christianity.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): PASS. Jesus had a notoriously flawless social reputation and was known for his noble morals.
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): PASS. He was raised Jewish, however he wasn’t particularly involved in any public religious activity, nor did he engage in any activity that produced thought or knowledge. He was a carpenter by trade (1), until his mission started. After which, and this is critical, he was immediately at odds with the existing Jewish teachings to the point of being in danger!
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): PASS. He was known to be a carpenter, then he suddenly turned into an itinerant preacher at odds with the established teachings (2). If he had been publicly learning or teaching Judaism before his claim, he would have failed this criterion, as almost all others have. However, it’s not the case, and the transformation is self-produced and puzzling! How does a carpenter who isn’t involved with religious matters nor any knowledge or thought producing profession, suddenly become an itinerant preacher with enough difference to the established faith to become a threat and a target?
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. He died for his mission (the Christian version is in contrast with the Islamic version here). There is no better test of devotion. He also was at odds with the established Jewish religion, which made him a target. Most of the founders of religion that we have seen, never entered in conflict with the existing religions at the beginning, rather, they built upon them and benefited from their involvement with them.
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): PASS. Christianity is the biggest religion today! Nearly 25% of humans are Christians, and the rest know or have heard of Jesus. Now this, is communication!!!
Similar to Moses, if there is a judging and fair God, Jesus is highly likely to be one of his messengers. His feat is even more impressive than that of Moses. His mission and success in correcting and complementing the existing Jewish faith against incredible odds, adds more credibility to his claim. Jesus changed the world and continues to do so today! Sources:
(1) From Britannica
: ...Joseph is said to have been a carpenter (Matthew 13:55)—that is, a craftsman who worked with his hands—and, according to Mark 6:3, Jesus also became a carpenter...
(2) From Britannica
: ...As a young adult, he went to be baptized by the prophet John the Baptist and shortly thereafter became an itinerant preacher and healer (Mark 1:2–28). In his mid-30s Jesus had a short public career, lasting perhaps less than one year, during which he attracted considerable attention...
Let's analyze the message of Islam.
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): PASS
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): PASS. Islam clearly warns of an upcoming judgment and details the conditions of success and failure. Consequently, it’s not safe to dismiss.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): PASS. Islam is universal. Anyone can be a Muslim, and it’s quite easy to find two Muslims who are from different countries, ethnicities and don’t share the same language. The yearly pilgrimage where millions of Muslims gather is proof to how diverse Muslims can be.
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): PASS. Islam references many past prophets (25 in total), including but not limited to: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, David, Jacob, Jonas, Moses, Jesus... It clearly states that God has been communicating since the beginning out of fairness, so that people wouldn’t find any excuse when judgment comes!
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): PASS. Islam insists on monotheism, and clearly reverses the trinity concept that has gotten into Christianity, as well as the idea that God is all-loving, on top of being all-knowing and all-powerful.
It aligns with reality well by describing reality as a test of free will. Life is neither the suffering Buddhism makes it out to be (which it isn’t), nor is it the joyous life Tenrikyo claims it should be (which again, isn’t). Every single human is continuously tested through good and bad. When it is something bad, it is their patience and acceptance that is tested. When it is something good, it is their capacity of being thankful and generous that is tested. Everyone’s life is a mix of good and bad. Exceptions exist and are accounted for.
Islam states that God has been sending prophets since the beginning in order to remind people that judgment is coming. It states that people who didn’t get the message will be tested again. Those who got the message of the prophet of their time, accepted it and followed its guidelines, shall pass the judgment. Those who rejected the message after receiving it clearly shall fail.
Now let's analyze Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): PASS. Prior to his claim, Muhammad was highly regarded by his community and known for his trustworthiness (1).
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): PASS. Again here, Muhammad was not involved in the pagan polytheist religion of his community, even though it was popular, nor was he involved in any other religion. He was a successful merchant (2) and notoriously illiterate (3). He didn’t have any profession or interest that produced thought or knowledge.
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): PASS. Muhammad’s life changed drastically after he supposedly received revelation. The first contact shocked him greatly (4). After telling his wife what happened, she took him to her cousin who was knowledgeable about the Jewish faith. He told Muhammad that what happened to him was similar to Moses, and that a day will come when his community chases him away.
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. Muhammad suffered a lot for his claim and was under constant threat of death (5). He used to request to be guarded at night, however upon receiving revelation that God will protect him from people, he sent the guards away from that moment on (6). He was never harmed even while having many enemies who wanted to kill him.
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): PASS. Muhammad, an illiterate person living in a remote desert, without any special means or skills, was able to spread his message everywhere, and he predicted it from the start (7). He created a civilization that would change the world in just 23 years. Like Christianity, Islam is found almost everywhere, and almost everyone has heard of him and his religion. It’s not by chance that the most popular male first name in the world today is “Muhammad” (8).
If a judging and fair God exists, Muhammad is highly likely to be one of his messengers. He was leading a normal and regular life in a polytheistic society for 40 years, then suddenly started preaching monotheism, suffering for it and even going to war for it. Sources:
(1) From Wikipedia
: ...Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a successful businesswoman. Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one...
(2) From Wikipedia
: ... It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea...
(3) From Wikipedia
: ... Because he could not read and write himself...
(4) From Wikipedia
: ...Muhammad was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations. After returning home, Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian [sic] cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal
. He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed...
(5) From Wikipedia
: ...Regardless, several attempts were made at Muhammad's life...
(6) From Qur’an
. Aisha said: "The Prophet was being guarded until this verse وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ (Allah will protect you from mankind) was revealed." She added; "The Prophet raised his head from the room and said; «يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ انْصَرِفُوا فَقَدْ عَصَمَنِي اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَل» (O people! Go away, for Allah will protect me)"
(7) From Sunnah
: Miqdad reported that he heard God’s messenger say, “There will not remain on the face of the earth a mud-brick house or a camel’s hair tent which God will not cause the confession of Islam to enter bringing both mighty honour and abject abasement. God will either honour the occupants and put them among its adherents, or will humiliate them and they will be subject to it.” Miqdad said, “God will then receive complete obedience.”
Let’s analyze the Druze faith!
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): FAIL. It’s not an extinct religion, but it is intentionally restricted and doesn’t accept conversions to it. How can this be a communication from a judging and fair God if the people being judged cannot have access to the material they need to succeed? If it stated that only a specific audience was targeted, that might have worked, but it doesn't say that, at least not when it started.
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): PASS. Since Druze references other Abrahamic religions, I’m giving it a pass here, even though it’s not clear what the Druze actually believe.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): FAIL. It’s far from being universal. It doesn’t want to be, and it’s not.
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): PASS. It does reference other religions, even though it’s not clear in what capacity. Are the previous religions considered as previous instances of communication? Or does it complete its worldview with their knowledge? I’ll give it a pass.
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): FAIL. Its closed nature makes it impossible for it to align with reality.
Now let's analyze Hamza Ibn Ali, the founder of Druze.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): FAIL. The Druze faith was named after Al-Darzi, who might have been either a disciple or a teacher of Hamza. A rivalry appeared between the two. Al-Darzi disputed the role of Hamza as the leader of the movement. They were both acquiring followers and engaged in regular brawls (1). So in summary, God supposedly sent Hamza as a messenger preaching that the current ruler was the embodiment of said God (If God is the embodiment of the ruler, why need Hamza at all?!!), then another man entered in competition with this messenger, who was also tolerated by the ruler, and even ended up giving his name to the movement, all the while the followers of each man fought each other. Then after said ruler was killed, the movement disappeared from its place of inception, but survived elsewhere and became a restricted religion. This doesn’t show anyone involved in a good light, especially not Hamza.
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): FAIL. There isn’t enough information about Hamza Ibn Ali before he entered Egypt in 1017. However, he fails the non-involvement rule, as he was appointed as a preacher in his own mosque before he started claiming that the reigning caliph was the embodiment of God (2). Rather convenient since that granted him support and favors (3).
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): FAIL. He supposedly received revelation, however that didn’t seem to cause any change in his life whatsoever. Receiving an unexpected contact from some God is supposed to cause a noticeable drastic change in one’s life, unless such revelation was expected or planned. Suffice it to say that he was already a preacher before supposedly receiving revelation.
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. Hamza definitely feared for his life but continued with his claim. He went into hiding, which seems a little bit cowardly for a prophet. In contrast, Moses came back to a place where he feared for his life, because he believed there was a God protecting him. The same happened with Muhammad who confidently sent guards away after revelation. However, since Hamza continued with his claim, considering this as a pass seems fair.
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): FAIL. Hamza Ibn Ali failed to spread his message even though he initially set out to (4). If one is to say that the message couldn’t spread because of persecution, well, the same persecution occurred for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and yet, these messages spread everywhere despite everything.
It’s extremely unlikely that the Druze faith is a communication from a judging and fair God. Its founder fails a combination of some important criteria. Sources:
(1) From Wikipedia
: ...Indeed, in his epistles, Hamza is critical of his colleague, both for al-Darzi's disputing Hamza's role as the leader of their movement, as well as for his followers' over-zealous, extremist and provocative actions, which revealed the movement's ideas prematurely and placed it under danger of attack... During this time, the followers of the rival leaders engaged in regular brawls in the streets of Cairo, cursing one another as infidels.
(2) From Britannica
: ...Almost nothing is known of his life before he entered Egypt in 1017. He became a spokesman for the religious convictions of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Ḥākim (the Fāṭimids were the ruling dynasty in Egypt), who was already accorded the position of imām, a divinely appointed and authoritative spokesman for Islam...
(3) From Wikipedia
: ...According to the medieval chroniclers, he too enjoyed signs of favour from al-Hakim: when he complained to the Caliph that his life was in danger, he was given weapons, which he demonstratively hung on every entrance to the Raydan Mosque...
(4) From Britannica
: ...Considerable resistance to these doctrines appeared when they were first preached in 1017, and Ḥamzah went into hiding until 1019, when al-Ḥākim was able to move vigorously to support the new religious movement... Ḥamzah claimed to be representing not just another sect but rather an independent religion, one that superseded traditional Islam. Al-Ḥākim disappeared in mysterious circumstances in 1021, and, much persecuted, the Druze cult all but ceased to exist in Egypt...
Let’s analyze Mormonism:
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): PASS.
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): PASS. Mormonism is built on top of Christianity and Judaism, to which it delegates a vast chunk of knowledge. Consequently, I’ll give it a pass here.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): FAIL. It is far from being universal. If it was God’s way to bring Christianity to its rightful state, the least we can say is that it didn’t happen. Most of Mormons are still in Utah (U.S state), where they went after Smith was killed.
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): PASS. Mormonism references both Christianity and Judaism. This makes it pass this criterion, however, the fact that it doesn’t reference Islam is problematic for its worldview.
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): FAIL. Being based on Christianity, Mormonism inherits some of the same issues. It corrects some, but also introduces some of its own. For example, Mormonism states that there are three separate divine entities, God the father, Jesus Christ and the holy spirit. They’re not three in one, as Christianity says. This doesn’t solve the issue of sacrificing one divine entity for the sins of humans while still judging them. It only adds complexity. Are these Gods equal? What if they don’t agree on something? This also goes against Judaism, which Mormonism references, and with Judaism comes the whole legacy of monotheism! Mormonism corrects the idea that salvation only depends on accepting Jesus as savior. It adds the fact that deeds play a role, which is fair.
Now let's analyze Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): FAIL. Smith’s reputation was less than stellar (1). His treasure hunting profession isn’t exactly the most honest of professions. Also, eloping to marry his wife, attempting to marry already married women, escaping justice, dying in a shoot-out with the mob...
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): FAIL. He fails the non-involvement rule on many accounts. He was heavily involved with public religious activity and even magic, in a place and time where religious revivalism thrived (2).
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): FAIL. Supposedly receiving revelation in 1823 via the angel he called Moroni, didn’t surprise him, nor seemed to have much effect on his life direction. He continued treasure seeking using questionable methods and leading the same life.
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. Smith was extremely devoted to his cause. He never gave up until the end!
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): FAIL. If Mormonism was God’s way to bring back Christianity to its rightful state, then the mission simply failed. It seems like Christianity enjoys far more universality than Mormonism. In this regard, Smith failed his mission, as most of the followers of the religion are still based where their ancestors ended up after the death of Smith.
(1) From Wikipedia
: ...Meanwhile, the Smith family faced financial hardship... Family members supplemented their meager farm income by hiring out for odd jobs and working as treasure seekers, a type of magical supernaturalism common during the period. Smith was said to have an ability to locate lost items by looking into a seer stone, which he also used in treasure hunting, including, beginning in 1825, several unsuccessful attempts to find buried treasure sponsored by Josiah Stowell, a wealthy farmer in Chenango County, New York. In 1826, Smith was brought before a Chenango County court for "glass-looking", or pretending to find lost treasure; Stowell's relatives accused Smith of tricking Stowell and faking an ability to perceive hidden treasure... Although Smith had abandoned treasure hunting, his former associates believed he had double crossed them and had taken the golden plates for himself, property they believed should be jointly shared. After they ransacked places where they believed the plates might be hidden, Smith decided to leave Palmyra
(2) From Wikipedia
: The region was a hotbed of religious enthusiasm during the Second Great Awakening. Between 1817 and 1825, there were several camp meetings and revivals in the Palmyra area… Smith said that he became interested in religion by age 12… With other family members, Smith also engaged in religious folk magic, which was a relatively common practice in that time and place…
- Criterion 1 (Living religion): PASS.
- Criterion 2 (Warning of judgement): UNKNOWN. Baha’i Faith claims to be a unification of all the major religions. The issue is that some of the religions it references speak of judgment, like Judaism, Christianity and Islam, while others don’t, like Buddhism and Hinduism. While Baha’i Faith speaks of a day of judgment, it doesn’t seem to view it in the same way. It speaks of deeds being judged, but not according to each religion’s standards, rather, according to Baha’i Faith’s standards, which I have failed to find after multiple searches. If the conditions of success and failure aren’t clear, the God of Baha’i Faith cannot possibly be fair. I’ll mark this as unknown, but it’s actually closer to a failure.
- Criterion 3 (Universality): FAIL. In theory, Baha’i Faith should be universal, as it calls for the unification of all the major religions. It attempts to please everyone, but even while doing so, its numbers remain low, and is mostly unknown.
- Criterion 4 (Past reference): FAIL. Baha’i Faith references all major religions, but not as past instances of communication. It essentially claims that there is only one religion, and that the major religions were manifestations of God, but don’t necessarily represent said unique religion correctly. It references all major religions only to change their core beliefs in order to achieve unification. Said another way, this One God, has left people to be duped by false religions since the start, and only thanks to Baháʼu'lláh in the 1800s, did he think to show the truth to people. What about those who died long before Baháʼu'lláh was even born, and who followed Buddhism for example without ever believing a God existed?
- Criterion 5 (Alignment with reality): FAIL. This is a big failure. Baha’i Faith doesn’t make much sense, to the point of being revolting, to me at least! It attempts to be everything to everyone. Its founder claims to be Christ returned for Christians, the second coming of Jesus for Sunni Muslims, the Imam Husayn for Shi’a Muslims, the reincarnation of Krishna for Hindus, and the fifth Buddha for Buddhists. Never mind what each one of these symbols means in the context of its own religion, it just takes the concept and runs with it. It disregards most of what is associated with these symbols, it only needs its acknowledged existence. Let’s not forget that most of these religions do not agree with each other! It attempts to reconcile worldviews that are incompatible with each other. It picks and chooses what it wants from each major religion and disregards the rest.
Now let's analyze Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of Baha'i Faith.
- Criterion 1 (Impeccable social reputation): PASS. Coming from a wealthy family, he was known to give considerable amounts of time and money to charity.
- Criterion 2 (Non-involvement rule): FAIL. The founder of Baha’i Faith, Baháʼu'lláh, as well as the founder of Bábism, Siyyid Ali Muhammad, known as the Báb, and who laid the foundation for Baha’i Faith, both fail the non-involvement rule. They were both heavily involved in public religious matters before and at the time of their claims (1) (2). We are not talking about regular religious people going about their day, then making an exceptional claim out of nowhere, no! It’s practically the same scenario every time: a person is deeply involved with religious matters, or actively pursuing a profession or an interest, which leads them either by opportunity or by delusion to their claim. It’s the same here!
- Criterion 3 (Sudden self-produced life direction change): FAIL. Baháʼu'lláh had already set the course of his life and was already deeply involved in religious matters before he supposedly received his first divine revelation, which was in prison. From then on, not much had changed.
- Criterion 4 (Complete devotion): PASS. He stood by his claim and spent most of his life in prison. It’s important to note though that he wasn’t initially imprisoned because of his claim. Rather, it was because of his involvement with Bábism.
- Criterion 5 (Wide reach of message): FAIL. If Baháʼu'lláh was sent by the one and only God in order to unify all major religions, such unification hasn’t happened successfully.
It's highly unlikely that Baha'i Faith is a communication from a judging and fair God. Sources:
(1) From Wikipedia
: Some of his earlier writings suggest that he did not enjoy the business and instead applied himself to the study of religious literature… He was constantly absorbed in his own thoughts, and was preoccupied with repetition of his prayers and verses… In 1841 the Báb went on pilgrimage to Iraq, and for seven months stayed mostly in and around Karbala. There he attended lectures of Kazim Rashti and became his follower… As of his death in December 1843, Kazim Rashti counseled his followers to leave their homes to seek the Mahdi, who, according to his prophecies, would soon appear. One of these followers, Mullá Husayn, after keeping vigil for 40 days in a mosque, traveled to Shiraz, where he met the Báb…
(2) From Wikipedia
: Soon after declaring his spiritual mission to Mullá Husayn, the Báb sent him to Tehran to deliver a special tablet to one whom God would guide him to. After learning about Baháʼu'lláh through an acquaintance, Mullá Husayn felt compelled to arrange for Baháʼu'lláh to receive the tablet—this news brought great joy to the Báb when Mullá Husayn wrote to him about it…
After analyzing all the religions, the ones that are highly likely to be communications from a judging and fair God if one exists, are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. They are the only religions that satisfy most of the criteria. In fact, their founders are the ONLY ones who satisfy all the criteria, specifically the criterion of non-involvement prior to their claim of a contact with a God. All the other founders were involved in one way or another, making their claim a possible result of either fraud or delusion.
It is important to note though: we haven't proven that a judging and fair God exists, and we haven't proven that these religions are actually communications from him
, not at all. All we did was to reasonably prove that if a judging and fair God exists, then Judaism, Christianity and Islam are highly likely to be communications from him
In the next post, we will continue our research and see how we can reasonably prove that a judging and fair God exists.
Until next time!
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to DebateReligion [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 23:00 siriusx22 Will mental health and legal problems change anything?
So I'm 13f and I'm going with a friend who's 12f and we've saved up almost $1000 dollars over a year. I'm going to court for being truant and we'll be gone during one of my scheduled court meetings. We've also ran away a few times before (me 4 times and her 3 times) and I've tried to off myself a few times and at least my parents ( probably a few more people though) know about 2 of my attempts. Recently, the girl I'm going with got caught self harming in a school bathroom so there's some people also trying to get her into a mental hospital. We'll be going about 10 hours away from the city that we're in now and It'll be in another county too. Should we go farther and is there anything that could change because of our history?
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to runaway [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 22:54 Fartells PSA - giant hogweed in Seattle
2023.06.03 22:43 LeslieJMercer Dwemer tips & tricks?
Hi, I've completed my Falmer revival by reuniting Skyrim under the name of Falmeris - focused on slow and meticulous rise from a one-county island through mostly stewardship.
Now I want to try myself in a Dwemeri culture run, but I seem to fail within around 10-15 years due to not being able to get myself off the ground early enough so that surrounding rulers (or my own liege) don't conquer me through sheer numbers.
At this point I tried 3 locations - all of them are one-counrt starts - north/south Morrowind and the island that belongs to the Daggerfell duchy (close to Hammerfell which in lore is closely connected to the Dwemer) and in all of them I get conquered early and the game simply ends.
The biggest issue seems to be the early focus on learning - sure, the quickly progressing development seems nice, but it leaves you at max 400-500 men in your army while AI focuses on sheer numbers, so no matter the advantage or commander skills - they just overpower me.
Another issue would be the complete randomness of the councillors you get at the start. One time I even got a chancellor with 8 diplomacy and he GAVE a neighboring ruler a Cassus Belli on my poor little island. One slip-up and suddenly your only holding gets random -20 control and you're left making 0.3 gold per month
Any tips? I don't want to start the game as a duchy or anything - not only isnt it lore friendly, but also the game gets too easy too fast.
Another thing is that with the decision to play Dwemer revival, I also started playing Ironman for the first time, so it also has a huge impact on how I play and, more importantly, how I lose
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to ElderKings [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 22:33 Rocklobster92 Looking for a quiet tent camping spot in northern Wisconsin
My dad and I like to plan a fatheson camping trip every summer - nothing too crazy, just a couple of tents for us and some drinks, a radio, and some food to grill. We are looking for a good spot in the northern part of the state we can either reserve, or an area that we can check out for camping that has a bit of privacy so we can keep to ourselves and not be bothered by too many people. Ideally we'd like to have some hiking trails nearby for something to do during the day.
Does anyone have any suggestions in mind? He lives in Price county if that helps. I know there are DNR websites with campgrounds and sites to reserve, and in the past we'd just find a few campgrounds and drive through in hopes of finding a decent site. But I'm looking for some recommendations as these trips together are rare and we want to spend less time looking around and more time actually enjoying the trip.
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to wisconsin [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 22:15 Joadzilla Trump-appointed federal judge rules Tennessee’s anti-drag show law is ‘unconstitutional’
A federal judge in Tennessee has ruled that a state law limiting public drag show performances represented an “unconstitutional restriction on the freedom of speech.”
“As a matter of text alone, the (Adult Entertainment Act) is a content, and viewpoint-based restriction on speech. The AEA was passed for the impermissible purpose of chilling constitutionally-protected speech,” US District Court Judge Thomas Parker, an appointee of former President Donald Trump, said in a 70-page late-Friday ruling.
Parker, who called the law “unconstitutionally vague and substantially overbroad,” also barred the defendant in the case – the district attorney of Shelby County, which is home to Memphis – from enforcing the law in that county.
The court ruling comes after Friends of George’s, a Memphis-based nonprofit that produces drag performances and comedy sketches, sued in March to stop the law from going into effect, arguing it was a violation of its free speech. Parker then temporarily blocked the state from enforcing the ban as he considered the law’s constitutionality.
Tennessee Republicans, who hold supermajorities in the state legislature, earlier this year passed the measure to restrict public drag show performances, which was signed by Republican Gov. Bill Lee. The law sought to limit “adult cabaret performances” on public property to shield children from viewing them, threatening violators with a misdemeanor and repeat offenders with a felony. The ban specifically included “male or female impersonators” who perform in a way that is “harmful to minors.” It had been set to go into effect April 1.
“WE WON!” Friends of George’s wrote in a tweet Saturday. “Judge Parker has declared Tennessee’s anti-drag law unconstitutional!”
Tennessee officials have argued that the measure is not a full ban and is only intended to stop overtly sexual performances in front of minors. Parker, in his ruling, acknowledged the state’s “compelling interest in protecting the psychological and physical wellbeing of children” but ruled against the law as “an unconstitutional restriction on the freedom of speech.”
Tennessee Attorney General Jonathan Skrmetti said in a statement Saturday that his office was reviewing the order and expects to appeal “at the appropriate time.”
“The scope of this law has been misrepresented in public by those more interested in pressing a narrative than in reading the statutory text,” Skrmetti said. “The Adult Entertainment Act remains in effect outside of Shelby County. This narrowly-tailored law protects minors from exposure to sexually explicit performances. Its operative language is rooted in the U.S. Supreme Court’s long-established First Amendment precedent.”
CNN has also reached out to Lee’s office for comment.
Tennessee’s law is just one of a slew of other similar measures that Republican-led state legislatures across the country have considered this year.
Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis, who is running for president, signed a bill last month that, among other things, gives his administration the power to take away licenses from establishments if they allow children into an “adult live performance,” widely interpreted as a crackdown on drag shows.
Montana Gov. Greg Gianforte signed legislation in May that prevents children from attending “sexually oriented shows” and from being present at obscene performances on public property. It specifically targets drag story hours, which it defines as “an event hosted by a drag queen or drag king who reads children’s books and engages in other learning activities with minor children present.”
Republicans say the performances – which often feature men dressing as women in exaggerated makeup while singing or entertaining a crowd, though some shows feature bawdier content – expose children to sexual themes and imagery that are inappropriate. LGBTQ advocates, however, argue that not all drag shows are sexual in nature and laws such as the ones in Montana and Tennessee stigmatize the community and could violate the First Amendment.
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to gamefaqs261 [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 22:13 Josh_werner I’ve never given a blow job
I live in Monmouth county and am recently interested in giving my first blow job to try it out. I’m open minded sexually …I’ve stroked cocks during 3somes, received great blow jobs etc…so I’m looking for a fit, clean, easygoing guy with a nice cock to let me try on them. Be cool with responses please, my tolerance for arrogant assholes is quite low but good people will always get my attention. I cannot host and will not do this for the first time in a car. That’s it. I look forward to chatting
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to Njbimen [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 22:07 DontTrip- First Time Prisoner
I’m about to serve 18 months in FED prison here in Phoenix Arizona, has anyone here been locked up in DOC here in Arizona and if so how were the rules from CO’s and the rules from inmates, will I be able to serve my time in peace and not have to worry about my life constantly, how is the food compared to Maricopa county sheriffs office jail, I mean I’m not expecting the ritz carlton whatsoever but I just wanna be able to give and get respect keep to my self stay healthy and not starve for a year and a half is it vegan food like MCSO? Thank you to anyone that gives me some information I hope you all have a wonderful day.
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to Prison [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:58 Cant_Ban_The_Juug welp
Been on the run for like an entire year now, getting old of it. First time felon haven't been to prison yet, no new charges just basically haven't talked to my PO in a year. What am I looking at? Complete revocation and full sentence handed down or is there a slight chance I might do some county time and get a 2nd chance for turning myself in and not catching any additional charges. First violation but I imagine it could be pretty bad since it's been basically a year on the run. Any advice or insight will help, gonna detox myself off all drugs and alcohol for 72 hours then go ahead and see what fate awaits me.
submitted by Cant_Ban_The_Juug
to probation [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:42 melhen16 [Thank You] A pile of end of week thanks
It has been a crazy week for me, but I am finally able to properly thank all the happy mail senders that have brought a smile to my face this week. u/jane_q
- Thanks for the cute postcard. Sounds like you have a busy summer ahead! u/DoraDoodle
x 2 - Thank you for the two separate homemade cards and the stickers. Your cards are always so beautiful and make me so happy! :) So glad to know you had a great birthday! u/cloudycat4
- Thank you for the beautiful homemade postcard and extra. u/KoreWrites
- Thank you for the Orlando/Florida postcard. u/Peonynote
- Thank you for the summer postcard. I love all the fresh fruits and veggies of the summertime. u/celpel
- Thank you for the beautiful floral postcard. The stamps on the card were all very neat! u/_pickupthepieces
- Thank you for the glow in the dark postcard. u/Layleez
- Thank you for the really neat bee-themed envelope, card, and extras. It made me buzzzzz with excitement! :) u/IridiumViper
- Thank you for the pretty floral card and washi tape. The weather has definitely been unusual for us in our part of the county this time of year. We should already be fully into all the heat and humidity! u/-random_ness
- Thank you for the purple and dog covered postcard. Such happy things! u/GothWitchofBrooklyn
- Thank you for the Ljubljana, Slovenija postcard (and the help with pronouncing the name!). u/KindConcept
- Thank you for the neat artistic card. Welcome back to RAoC!
submitted by melhen16
to RandomActsofCards [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:33 Western_Sherbert_629 cannot dismantle papacy i dont know what im doing wrong
| || |
ive looked through every single post and every time have the same problem, i do not. i control, literally every single tile in italia. just in case i got rid of every vassal and know I myself own every. single. county. but it still says i do not control the region. please help. submitted by Western_Sherbert_629 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:24 Old_Heart_7780 To Grandmothers house we go..
This is one of those days I put my earbuds in and crank up the music. Balmy low barometer days are never fun for an old retired electrician.
I was thinking about grandmas house, Junior’s grandma. There was something in her backyard that interested the Indiana State Police shortly after their summer wading in shitty brown Wabash River water. There was some reason they were there in force digging through years of Coffee grounds, potato peelings Brown bananas, rotten peas, 10 Chunks of sour cottage cheese... I think someone tipped ISP investigators on grandma’s trash pit on the outskirts of town. They knew someone burned something in that large garbage/burn pit you can see from Google Earth.
There’s no mistaking who the tipster could have been. The one guy that knew what was thrown in the Wabash River below the Kelly Street Bridge. The guy seen in his bright orange Property of Miami County Jail jumpsuit. Wrists shackled at the waist and escorted by two plainclothes ISP detectives that logged him out of the county lockup for a brief jaunt around his hometown. This was no Warped Tour— these men were serious. They were being escorted to that site where Junior must have told the detectives his own dad threw that old hunting knife. A bloody murder weapon. He had to get rid of it somewhere— living in rural Indiana that muddy River was his safest bet. He could drive by it everyday on his way to work in Kokomo— the sick POS.
Junior told them where they’d find that murder weapon. Who else could have led them there last summer. Things started moving once they shook that tree. They let Junior know in no uncertainty they knew he used one of his electronic devices to look up the Marathon Gas Station in Delphi that morning. They had a 20 something year old man languishing away in a county jail paranoid that he’d get ALL the CSAM charges, including the 2 count first degree murder charges for killing two kids. I guarantee anyone reading my words that freaked the Junior out. It was a planted story to get him thinking— get him even more paranoid he’d get all the blame for that day in Delphi. He’s a manipulator and exploiter of vulnerable young girls— but he’s no killer. The killer is that other actor living in that shithole of a 2 story claptrap dirty white house on the banks of that impossibly muddy River. You ever seen that Tik Tok What’s Your Name? Me being Ezekiel— I’d love to yell across the Wabash River to that house… What’s your name? If you’ve seen the Tik Tok you know what I’m talking about.
The ISP found that knife. I don’t know that as fact, I know it as in I have faith they didn’t stop until they did find it. A literal needle hidden on that muddy River bottom. They found the knife and it allowed them to move to the next location. I suspect ISP investigators stealthily drove past grandma’s house that day with the big guy in the orange suit slouched down in his seat. I don’t doubt they have him on video pointing out exactly where his daddy burned his signature black ski mask, black jeans, black hoodie, and black boots. I have no doubts he threw in the purple PT Crusier floor mat(s), the cheap aftermarket car seat covers and the fuzzy purple steering wheel cover grandma so much cherished.
The very fact that ISP investigators were sifting through years of ashes in grandmas backyard burn pit makes me confident somebody snitched. You know the old saying Snitches get Stitches. Not this time, because there’s no way in hell they are going to let the daddy man anywhere near his only son. It was no easy task to get a search warrant to search a little old ladies backyard burn pit— trust me. This lady had nothing to do with what happened that day. Her only misfortune is the fact she gave birth to a monster.
The Indiana State Police had to have found that killers knife. I say that because I think it took them finding it where, and the way, it was described by Junior. I doubt it has any fingerprints on it, or traceable DNA. If it had the owner would be in the same predicament as his little buddy from Mexico right now. It was enough to allow the ISP investigators to go to the judge with Junior’s taped statement and the photos of that knife risen from that dirty water. It was enough evidence and just enough credibility to juniors statement to get the search warrant probable cause affidavit to search a little old ladies trash/ burn pit filled with ….
With bacon rinds and chicken bones
drippy ins of ice cream cones Prune pits, peach pits, orange peels Gluppy glumps of cold oat meal, pizza crust and withered greens And soggy beans and tangerines and crust of black burned buttered toast And gristly bits of beefy roast
Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout-
I grew up listening to this guys poetry… my grandmother gave me his published poems when I was that age 13-14.
The three of them stole those two young girls lives. I know the men and women in law enforcement, that have worked on solving these horrific murders. They will not stop until all three are safely in a cold concrete and steel 6x9 cell, with a thin pad on a concrete bed
F___ You T___!
I had to quit Tik Tok btw. Too time consuming. I don’t miss it..
submitted by Old_Heart_7780
to Delphitrial [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:16 Far-Blood740 Question
Hello martialarts, I know this question sounds silly. Does anyone happen to know if there are fairground boxing booths or anything like this in Kansas City (the city I live in), Johnson County, nearby the city or around the United States. My favorite boxer, Jim Driscoll (he is an old time boxer) said that booth boxing (he was a former booth boxer) is the best and finest practice one could get for boxing because you are always fighting/are fighting against people or all comers of all weights and styles. It is a very old thing, but since boxing never goes out of style as entertainment and fun, I believe there should be something?. Any responses are helpful please, and thank you.
submitted by Far-Blood740
to martialarts [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:15 SqueekyCheekz Nobody wants to work
2023.06.03 21:08 FaAlt Still dealing with golf course that decided it's a concert venue. Looking for advice.
I made a lengthy post here: https://www.reddit.com/homeowners/comments/13hjxvw/golf_course_near_me_decided_its_an_outdoo
Every single Friday and Saturday night the golf course near me has outdoor concerts blasting loud music that you can hear over the TV with all doors and windows shut. I work during the week and Friday and Saturday nights are pretty much the only time I have to relax and have some peace and quiet. I feel like I can't even enjoy my own home now.
Since the last post I made several noise complaints with the city police. They showed up and an officer called me back telling me that the golf course showed them a noise permit and there was nothing he could do about it. After that I called the department of health for the city and talked with the person that is in charge of granting noise permits and he told me that the golf course did not have one, and noise permits are generally granted for recurring events. He said that he would look into it, but it gets complicated since I am in the county and the golf course is in the city. There are houses that are on the city side of the golf course, but they are further away from the concert venue. Basically the golf course has the stage and loud speakers pointed towards all the houses that are considered county property.
He said if I knew anyone in city limits it would be helpful if they submit complaints. I don't know anybody on that side of the golf course though.
I'm not sure where to go from here. They have another concert planned for tonight that they are selling tickets to. Last week when they had one I drove by the parking lot and there were about 200 cars in the parking lot, so it's not exactly a small event just for members. They are probably making a lot of money from these concerts, but they aren't zoned to be an outdoor concert venue.
What else can I do?
submitted by FaAlt
to homeowners [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 21:08 TheManIsNonStop [EVENT] Risorti Dalle Rovine
The Italian War of 1515
and its consequences have been disastrous for the county of Cremona and its people. Much like in several of the previous conflicts in Lombardy, Cremona was bitterly contested by the French and Imperial armies, having been the victim of a lengthy Imperial siege in 1515 and a much shorter French siege in 1516. The results were devastating, and the scars of the sieges were still readily apparent when Francesco Maria arrived in the city in late 1517
Though he meant to spend the beginning of 1518 helping to heal these scars, God had other plans. The treason of the Gonzaga of Mantua revealed at the Trial of Cesena
, and the following declaration of war by Pope Leo X
turned Francesco Maria’s attentions from peace
By March, he was already in the field.
Before long, the campaign year settled into a siege. Sieges are long, plodding affairs, leaving Francesco Maria with an abundance of downtime between directing engineers and commenting on maps of proposed trenches. Throughout the year, a flurry of letters flew between his camp and Cremona, managing and directing the repair of his new city from afar. In time, he hopes that these repairs and reforms will build Cremona into the wealthiest of his many possessions.
Prevosto dei Mercanti di Cremona
Among the first reforms introduced by the new Count of Cremona is the creation of a new bureaucratic position, the Provost of the Merchants. Largely copied from the institution introduced in the city of Milan in 1509
, the Provost is an official appointed by the Count of Cremona, bearing responsibility for overseeing public works, provisioning the city, collecting taxes, and managing Cremona’s canal network. He is assisted in this task by four assessors, who are nominated by the Count, but approved by a majority vote in Cremona’s city council (of which the Count is the leading member, but by no means the only powerbroker).
With the creation of this new position, Francesco Maria has appointed a loyal administrator from La Marche as Provost, while filling the assessor positions with local notables (a mix of local nobles and upwardly-mobile merchants). To ensure that they have the proper facilities available to them to complete their tasks, he has designated Palazzo Cittanova
as their permanent headquarters. Fixing the Navigli
Like much of Lombardy, Cremona is host to a series of complex, interconnected canals they criss-cross both the city and the province
. These canals (the navili
in the local dialect) are used for both navigation--allowing Padane trade direct access to workshops and warehouses throughout the city--and agriculture--the various canals bring irrigation water from the Adda and Oglio throughout the county, making it some of the most productive farmland in Italy.
The successive sieges of Cremona caused extensive damage to the navili. The besiegers--first Austrians, then French--regularly diverted the navili to supply fresh water to their siege camps and deny it to the city. Within the city proper, collapsed buildings and sunken ships had clogged narrower portions of the navili, while other sections had been intentionally dammed off to build reservoirs for firefighting or drinking. While the worst of the damage had been repaired since the war ended, the navili were still operating well below their full capacity, causing serious economic damage to the city and its inhabitants.
Addressing this persisting damage is the first task facing the new Prevost--one that is likely to earn near-universal support in Cremona. Repairing the Walls
Perhaps unsurprisingly, the walls of Cremona were devastated
by the successive sieges of the last war. The brutal eleven week Austrian siege of 1515 in particular destroyed large sections of the walls--part of why the French siege in 1516 was so much quicker. While the walls are more-or-less functional at the moment, with earthen palisades protecting those portions that were breached in the two sieges, they still leave much to be desired. As the southeasternmost city of French Milan, it is more likely than not that Cremona will see yet more sieges in the future. Thus, it is critically important that the city’s defenses be brought back into working order, and that they be upgraded to ensure the success of future defenses of the city.
Recognizing the strategic importance of Cremona to maintaining France’s presence in Milan, the Duke Philippe’s regency council has authorized the Count of Cremona to renovate the walls of his city. To this end, France has transferred its best and brightest military engineers (many of whom have already had experience upgrading the walls of other Lombard cities, such as Novara, Asti, Milan, Pavia, Lodi, Bergamo, and Crema
), and agreed to fund the upgrades (M: we’re waiting to see what the cost is to work this out). The planned upgrades will introduce modern defensive innovations to the walls, such as reinforcing bastions to allow for enfilade fire and earthen ditches and glacis to protect the base of the walls from cannon fire. Furthermore, the Castello di Santa Croce
, the castle and ducal residence on the western edge of Cremona, will be upgraded to bring it in line with modern defensive works (M: I’m not sure how much of the historic upgrades occurred--I’m mostly just looking to make it so that the OTL 1503 fortifications and 1520 fortifications are built with these upgrades). Upgrades and renovations will be managed by the Provost of the Merchants. Now Entering/Exiting Milan
Cremona’s position is not just strategically important, but economically
important. Built just a few miles east of the confluence of the Po and the Adda, Cremona is the first major Milanese city along the Po (Casalmaggiore notwithstanding), making it the first port-of-call for Padane shipping moving into French Milan (or even Savoy--the Po flows all the way to Turin), or the last port-of-call for shipping moving towards the Adriatic. Put simply: just about every vessel moving into or out of Milan will pass by Cremona at some
point. This makes Cremona ideally situated for two things, which are mutually beneficial and, in the right circumstances, very
The first is taxation. By decree of the Duke of Milan, Cremona will henceforth be a mandatory port-of-call for merchants wishing to enter French Milan via the Po. In order to continue along the Po, merchant vessels will first have to stop at Cremona, where they will have to pay customs duties on the goods they are importing into French territory, as well as a per capita toll on their crew. Once the duties have been paid, the ship’s captain will then be provided proper documentation for his goods and sent on his merry way. Further tolls may be collected along the river--particularly if the ship means to make use of the navigli--but the customs documents will be valid from Cremona to Milan to Turin.
The second is trade. As the first major French port on the Po, Cremona is well-suited to operate as an entrepôt for imports to and exports from Milan. Merchants, looking to save themselves time by avoiding a full trip along the Po, might instead look to offload their goods at Cremona (and pick up goods for their return trip). Others might be looking to transfer their goods to different sized vessels (smaller if they are continuing onto the Po tributaries or the navigli, larger if they are heading towards the Adriatic), or onto numerous different
vessels (say, if a spice merchant from Venice wants to send his product to Crema, Pavia, Milan, and Turin). More entrepreneurially-minded local merchants might even try to profit from the arbitrage opportunity introduced by the new customs rates, which are lower for French and Milanese merchants than their foreign counterparts, by buying up foreign (usually Venetian) goods and selling them in French Milan at a profit.
In any case, for Cremona to fulfill this purpose, there is a need for new infrastructure within the city--something that the Count is all too eager to provide. With funds from his own treasury, Francesco Maria will be building a series of warehouses, guest houses and trading posts both near Cremona’s waterfront and further into the city, dotted along its canal network. The largest of these warehouses, dubbed the Fondaco dei Veneto
(literally, the warehouse of the Venetians) will be conveniently situated close to the Po. Built in the style of a Venetian fondaco
, with high arches, waterfront access, and living quarters above the ground floor, this trading post will specifically cater to Venetian merchants, giving them a safe place to store, buy, and sell their wares while enjoying the comfort of a hot meal and a good night’s rest. All while paying the Count for the services provided, of course!
By mandating that merchant vessels stop at Cremona to pay duties on imported goods, ships that would previously pass Cremona without stopping will have to spend some amount of time in the city’s port. With this in mind, traffic is expected to increase considerably.
Thus, it is imperative that ships are moved as quickly and efficiently through Cremona’s port as possible. To this end, Francesco Maria has announced the construction of a new customs house in the port district of Cremona, the Palazzo dei Mercanti,
a two-story building intended to function as the administrative headquarters of the new customs system. In search of a leading Italian architect to design the building, Francesco Maria has invited noted pupil of Raphael (who arrived in Milan in 1517 Lorenzetto
. Should he fail to retain Lorenzetto’s services, invitations will then be sent to local Lombard architect and pupil of Bramante Antonio da Lonate
and, failing that, Girolama Genga
, who Francesco Maria has hired several times in the past.
Collecting customs duties, managing the city’s primary customs house, and operating the Count’s network of warehouses and trade posts will all be under the purview of the Provost of the Merchants. Attracting Investment
Despite its strategic position on the Po and fertile farmland, Cremona is… strangely devoid of economic activity. Francesco Maria is not quite sure why this is (perhaps Venetian merchants and Lombard nobles fled with their wealth when the province was conquered by France?), but the effect is the same: there is an immense opportunity to expand the county’s productivity. Like the rest of Lombardy, Cremona’s farmland is some of the most productive of Europe, and the city’s position on the Po gives it easy access to population centers like Turin, Milan, and Venice.
If the Venetian merchants won’t invest in the province, maybe their Lombard and French counterparts will. The new Provost of the Merchants of Cremona will offer institutional and legal support to subjects of French Milan--that is, French and Lombard merchants, nobles, and clergy--looking to establish new holdings in the city and the county. To help incentivize further investment by Cremona’s nobility and merchant families, Francesco Maria will also consider the willingness of individuals to reinvest in Cremona when making future political appointments in the county--most notably the four assessors of the Provost of the Merchants and the Castellan-Provosts of the Castellany-Provostships of the county.
Castellano-Prevosto di Cremona
Much like the city of Cremona was adversely affected by the sieges of 1515 and 1516, the countryside saw substantial damage. Armies on campaign tend to pick the countryside bare, stealing whatever they can get their hands on (most especially grain and livestock) and killing whoever tries to stop them. As Austrian, French, Venetian, and Bourbon armies criss-crossed the Cremonesi countryside, it was treated no differently. Fields were burned, livestock were slaughtered, storehouses were robbed, and families fled. Though peace has returned once again, the damage remains, and Francesco Maria must address it.
With the exception of the navili, which are governed by the Provost of the Merchants, the countryside of Cremona falls under the direct jurisdiction of the Count and is administered through a series of appointed administrators called Castellan-Provosts. It falls to those Castellans to mete out the Count’s aid and repair the land. Food for All
The nice thing about farms is that they are largely self-sustaining. With proper stewardship, one harvest yields enough seed for the next, livestock beget livestock, and the farm continues as it always has. The bad thing about farms is that the bulk of farmers do not generate much in the way of surplus value. This means that when looting armies come through, burn fields, slaughter livestock, steal all of your valuables, and otherwise ruin (or end) farmers’ lives, the farmers can struggle to garner the capital necessary to start their lives anew. Such is the case in the countryside of Cremona.
In order to help restore the agricultural wealth of Cremona--the lifeblood of the province--Francesco Maria has authorized the disbursal of additional funds to the Castellan-Provosts, who will distribute these funds to replenish livestock herds and seed stores throughout the County. Settling Property Disputes
While many farmers return to their fields after a war, some do not--some because they found a new life elsewhere, and others because they died. Ownership disputes over the lands they leave behind are common. Neighbors expand their farms into the abandoned lands while sons, cousins, uncles, brothers-in-law, and people pretending to be those things lay claim to the land of families who died. Sometimes, these competing claims turn violent.
Sifting through these claims and keeping the peace is the duty of the Castellan-Provosts. To help ensure that these legal claims are dealt with quickly and efficiently, Francesco Maria has transferred funds to the Castellan-Provosts to hire additional administrative and legal personnel. Summary: Francesco Maria is spending money to reduce devastation throughout Cremona. A new administrative position, the Provost of the Merchants of Cremona (mirroring the Provost of the Merchants implemented in Milan in 1509) is tasked with repairing the canal system of the province, while the Castellan-Provosts who administer the countryside will be given additional financial support to repair the county’s agricultural production. Furthermore, with support from the Duke of Milan, Cremona’s walls will be repaired and upgraded.
The Duke of Milan has also designated the city of Cremona as the official customs hub for imports entering the Duchy of Milan. While the rates will be set by the Duke, the Count of Cremona (through the Provost of the Merchants of Cremona) is responsible for collecting those customs, which are intended to protect French and Lombard merchants in Milan from foreign (mostly Venetian) competition. Hoping to profit off of this new importance of Cremona for trade along the Po, Francesco Maria has also authorized the construction of a new customs house and trade hub within the city.
- Price for reducing devastation in Cremona (4A1) and the unnamed neighboring province (4A2) through repairing the canal system and rebuilding the rural farm economy
- Price for rebuilding and upgrading Cremona’s (4A1) defenses (which will be shared with France--let me know what the cost ends up being, and I’ll let you know what the payment split will be)
- Price for building a trade hub (or fondachi?) holding in Cremona (4A1)
- Resolution for building customs house in Cremona (need to know which of Lorenzetto, Antonio da Lonate, and Girolama Genga accepts the Duke’s offer to design the building; cost for the construction; and also what mechanical effects it will have both in Cremona and on holding ownership throughout the Duchy of Milan. Not sure if this should be a holding like the sound dues, a staple port holding, a tax efficiency increase for Cremona, or what--open to discussion)
- How successful is Francesco Maria’s call for investment in Cremona (4A1) and the unnamed neighboring province (4A2)? These provinces currently have almost no holdings in them (not counting the city, there are only three holdings between them), so I’m hoping to attract estates to build them out a bit. Not sure what estates are around these parts, but I imagine it’d be stuff like Lombard/Milanese/French merchants/clergy/nobility. Merchant/noble families in the county who make considerable investments will be favored when it comes time for the count to make political appointments in the future (most notably, the assessors of the Provost of the Merchants of Cremona and the Castellan-Provosts of the Castellan-Provostships of the county’s Castellany-Provostships).
submitted by TheManIsNonStop
to empirepowers [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 20:57 stageseven Evolution of my board, 2015 to present.
| || | submitted by stageseven to guitarpedals [link] [comments]
A quick overview of the current status, what I have here is on a Temple Audio DUO 24 after downsizing from a Pedaltrain Classic Pro. Signal chain is TC Polytune 3 Mini > Keeley Compressor Plus > Dunlop DVP4 Mini Volume > EAE Longsword > Strymon Sunset > Source Audio EQ2 (hidden underneath) > GFI Synesthesia > Strymon Timeline > Strymon BigSky > Strymon Iridium > Radial ProD2 (also underneath). Everything that can be controlled by MIDI is hooked into a Morningstar MC6 MkII. This isn't necessarily finished, but the only thing I'm really considering changing at this point is the compressor, I'd like to eventually replace it with an Earthquaker Warden. I leave my compressor on all the time and I feel like the Keeley has a strong impact on the overall tone with a substantial low end cut, where I would prefer to have more transparent volume leveling and shape tone with my EQ.
The oldest version of this board I have a picture of was from 2015 when I was using an amp still. This went Polytune > Morley Volume Plus > Boss CS-3 (Monte Allums mod) > Dunlop Crybaby (classic? It was either a Guitar Center or Sweetwater special edition hammered finish) > EHX POG2 > Digitech Whammy > BYOC Chorus > BYOC Large Beaver > WMD Geiger Counter. From there it went into a Hughes and Kettner Tubemeister 18, then out the effects loop into the Boss DD20 > TC Hall of Fame > Strymon BlueSky. Everything was on a board I designed and made from plywood that I lugged around until I couldn't stand the weight anymore.
Around 2021 I made some significant changes. I got the Pedaltrain Classic Pro, ditched the amp and picked up an Iridium and a mono DI, replaced the DD20 with a Timeline, and all my drives got replaced with the Sunset. I used the expression pedal as control over the gain on the Sunset. I found I really liked the additional control provided and started considering MIDI.
Over the next year I replaced both the BlueSky and Hall of Fame with the BigSky, got the Morningstar MC6, Source Audio EQ2, Black Arts Toneworks Son of Pharoah, Keeley Compressor. It wasn't too much later than the 2022 picture that I picked up the EAE Longsword and squeezed that on the board as well. I also started running everything in stereo and replaced the Radial ProDI with the ProD2. I really liked having the EQ in the chain after the drive section as it allowed me a ton of flexibility, basically I could make it sound however I wanted.
Most recently I decided this was too much to be carrying around on a regular basis because of the weight and because I hardly used some of the pedals, particularly the fuzz, POG, and Whammy. My line of thinking is if I have a reason to use them they will stay off the board and go on the front of the chain. I picked up the Synesthesia to add more tonal range, cover some of the ground of the POG, and for more MIDI control. The Dunlop volume replaced the Morley volume solely for the reduced footprint. Same for the Polytune. It's a bit strange to think I'm no longer using anything from my original board, but I guess that's life.
2023.06.03 20:39 AutoNewspaperAdmin [Health] - First measles case in Maryland since 2019 reported in Montgomery County Washington Times
2023.06.03 20:33 mhartm Favorite Cast Member Meeting?
Okay so I don’t know how many of us have gotten to meet some of the cast in person. For those who have, who was your favorite? Which was the best experience?
Me: It’s hard to choose just one. I’ve gotten to meet Samantha Smith, Felicia Day, Mark Pellegrino, Mark Shepard, Jim Beaver, Rob Benedict, and Misha Collins.
Best Experience: Probably Samantha Smith. I went to her booth and was so freaking nervous. She was so patient and sweet. I kept apologizing and she was like: “This is a no apology zone. Unless you punch me we’ll be fine.” Then she took a pic tire with me. My phone kept giving me red eyes. So she told me to hand it over and proceeded to edit the pictures for me. I felt so relaxed and comfortable.
Fav: Mark Shepard. I got to ask him a question at his panel. I thanked him for being on the show. This is what he said:
MS: “Which one?” Me: “Supernatural. I haven’t seen the others.” MS: “You haven’t seen them?!” Me: “No.” MS: crosses legs “Okay. Go watch. We’ll wait.”
When I got my photo op with him he beckoned me over and said: “Coke on over. I’ve got you girl.”
Still, like I said, it’s hard to choose just one. Felicia day told me she loves my red hair. Rob Benedict told me how to find more of his music after I mentioned having tweeted him and him replying. Jim Beaver was like Samantha Smith in that when I was stuttering and nervous he took the time to talk to me.
What about y’all?
submitted by mhartm
to Supernatural [link] [comments]
2023.06.03 20:10 sunnylabasa Changing Attorney before the Case Settlement
Is it a good idea to change attorneys when the case is approaching a "Case Settlement Conference" in a month? I am unhappy with my current attorney. He doesn't seem to care about the case and has dragged it out for three years now. It appears that he is not genuinely interested in the case and only does the bare minimum to navigate the court process. I strongly feel that he is simply trying to take advantage of me financially. I considered switching attorneys earlier, but I was concerned that the new attorney would struggle to catch up on all the details of my case. However, after my recent court experience, I am extremely upset. He appeared in court without adequate preparation, asking inappropriate questions and focusing on one issue for far too long. The judge even had to remind him to move on. I believe he was deliberately wasting time to extend the proceedings and increase his fees. Because of this, current RFO long course hearing has extended in 3rd day.
In any case, I would like to know if it is advisable to change attorneys at this stage, or if it will complicate matters further. Additionally, I am unsure where to look for a better attorney. I am located in Alameda County in the Bay Area, California. If any of you know of a good family law attorney, please let me know.
Thank you all in advance
submitted by sunnylabasa
to u/sunnylabasa [link] [comments]